JUNGLECAT TECHNIQUE poster pre-order

The JUNGLECAT TECHNIQUE mixtape comes out Sept 8th, but you can pre-order a poster now using the paypal button below. The posters are 12″x14″ (30.48cm x 35.56cm), and will ship around sept 8th. Your pre-orders make it much easier for me to determine how many I should order in my first run, which means that more money goes back into making upcoming projects. Also, I will sign the first 25 preorders, so order now!

JUNGLECAT TECHNIQUE POSTER

JUNGLECAT TECHNIQUE POSTER


Posters are $15. Free shipping within the US. If you’re outside the US I’ll send you an additional paypal payment request for the exact cost of the shipping with a customs/tracking number.





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#BuildaBetterFakeTheropod …WITH SCIENCE!

If you’ve been following me on twitter you’ll no doubt have found your feed infested with bizarre fictitious dinosaurs with the hashtag #BuildABetterFakeTheropod. The idea behind the hashtag was to try and come up with better, more scientifically inspired fake dinosaur designs than Jurassic World’s dated, unrealistic looking gray behemoth “Indominus rex.” Turns out, coming up with something more interesting and more science based isn’t very hard, because paleontologists have already done a ton of hard work over the last 20 years discovering and describing and educating the public about a diverse menagerie strange and wonderful lifeforms all of which suggests a world of speculative biology ripe for movie-monster exploitation. Over the course of the last few weeks I’ve posted a bunch of illustrations to my twitter and I thought I ought to explain some of the science that inspired a few of them in more than 140 characters.

“Cryptonychus arborealis” a semi arboreal Dromeosaur (“raptor”) from a tropical rain forest environment:

FTCryponychusWeb

It’s apparently pretty hard to become a fossil. While some environments lend themselves to making fossils more than others, many environments aren’t so good at it, and some are really really bad at it. Tropical rainforests are one of those environments that can be really really bad at making fossils. Constant heat and humidity encourage an abundance of decomposers, and a thick mass of vegetation binds up all the available soil, so things rarely get buried in the mineral rich mud, sand or clay that help preserve remains. What that means is that there are vast swathes of some of the most bio-diverse ancient ecologies that we will never know anything about… That means LOTS of dinosaurs that just rotted and were forgotten. Forever. Now that doesn’t mean we can’t speculate about what might’ve been living in such environments, as many things from environments that were good at making fossils likely had relatives in environments that were not so good at making fossils (as many living things do today).

So, think of humans, or cheetahs. Both are widespread predators (well, cheetahs used to be widespread – once ranging throughout southern Europe, India & the Middle East) who evolved to hunt by chasing things down in an open Savannah environment. But both humans and cheetahs aren’t the only hunting primates or big cats around. We live at the same time as animals that share a common ancestor with us. In the tropical jungles of Africa there are both leopards and chimpanzees, both of which hunt in trees. Now, when I consider that the Velociraptor and Utahraptor that we know about hunted in open floodplains & semiarid woodland environments (good at makin fossils), and they share ancestry with smaller “raptor” dinos that appear to be arboreal (tree climbing) forms (some of which were likely gliders or fliers), I gotta wonder: were their weird big jungle raptors that hunted in way up trees?? My “Cryptonychus” (meaning “hidden claw”) is an attempt to come up with something like that. As it’s name (and hopefully the art) implies, it is a large ambush hunter, with a shaggy coat of feathers to camouflage it amongst the mossy vines an branches as it creeps slowly through the trees until if finds a perch near a game trail or nest. Then it waits… Silent. Motionless. Until the prey comes just… close… enough!

Giant Heron-like Ornithomimid
FTSpearBillWeb

Ornithomimids are the group of Dinosaurs that looked sorta like ostriches but weren’t. The group includes Gallimimus, which was included (albeit featherless) in the first Jurassic Park movie and (even less accurately) in the new movie. Deinocheirus was a weird giant member of this group, and the recent discovery of more of its skeleton shows us that the ornithomimids could get BIG (like around T-rex big) and weird (it had a goddamn hump or sail or something)!

Deinocheirus figure from Natrure

One of the features that made it weird was that, unlike the rest of the (known) ornithomimids, Deinocheirus has a peculiar spoon shaped bill, likely for cropping plant matter or sifting nutritious crud out of the water like ducks do. The rest of the group has more pointed beaks, similar to that of modern generalist feeders like chickens and ostriches and the like. So, if this lineage of dinosaurs evolved a range of bills from sorta-pointy, to really-spoony, why not extra-pointy? It is not uncommon in evolutionary history to see groups of generalist feeders give rise to species or whole groups more specialized for feeding a certain way, which seems to be what Deinocheirus was doing. Perhaps somewhere, lurking in the depths of time, still waiting to be discovered or missed by fossilization completely, there were Ornithomimids adapted to spear and gulp down smaller animals as modern herons do… Oh, and by the way, herons are pretty closely related to spoonbills (they’re both Pelicaniformes).


Early Jurassic “Sinosaur-Line” Theropods

FTChasersWeb

There is a big hole in the fossil record between the smaller late Triassic ceolophysoid theropods and the big giants (Like Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus) that appear in the fossil record in the middle Jurassic. The medium to large sized early Jurassic theropods that have been found (such as Dilophosaurus and Sinosaurus) are rare and many are highly fragmentary, yet they seem to indicate some interesting things were going on. Many of them have strange crests on their heads, and their overall body plan appears to be transitioning from a long and low body plan, to one with more robust legs, arms, heads and necks, likely for taking down larger prey. The creatures in the above drawing are my attempt to visualize a powerful-yet-speedy intermediate form, with ample strength to dispatch human-sized prey, but long powerful legs to chase down even off road vehicles. I, for one, would love to see a chase scene where a pair (or more!) of hungry theropods easily keep pace with a speeding off-road vehicle and the human prey within has to avoid being pulled from a broken window or opened top as the vehicle bounces and lurches in its struggle to navigate the rugged terrain, effortlessly handled by the ancient hunters.

If you like this kind of speculative monster design stuff let me know, & I hope you’ll share it aroundI. If people like it I’ll do another post on a few of my other #buildabetterfaketheropod designs.

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#BuildABetterFakeTheropod

If you’re gonna make up a dinosaur (or other prehistoric creature) for what is ostensibly a science-fiction movie, it should be spectacular visually, frighteningly foreign yet believable in it’s character and behavior, and it should be based at least loosely on the mountain of surprising and fascinating knowledge about dinosaur anatomy and behavior that scientists and artists around the world have worked tirelessly to discover and communicate over the last several decades. In light of a new Jurassic Park movie coming out that apparently disregards all of that study and discovery, (even with regards to the not-made-up dinosaurs it features) I started drawing made-up dinosaurs that I think would be cool to see in a movie and I’ve been posting them to my twitter feed with the hashtag #BuildABetterFakeTheropod. I’ve decided that for the next week I’m gonna put a new one up every day, in the hopes that people will be intrigued about actual dinosaur science in the process. At the end of the week I’ll throw up a full gallery with all of them.

To start us off, here’s a speculative long-horned relative of the Abelisaur Majungasaurus, dripping with blood from a recent battle, possibly with a rival male. His neck is a swollen mass of fat and connective tissue meant to protect him from the bites, thrusts and slashes of his opponents…

Longhorn Abelisaur

While that horn on it’s head might look a bit ridiculous, it’s only an exaggeration of a feature known from a real Theropod dinosaur, Majungasaurus. Check out the horn-like knob at the top of it’s skull, and bear in mind that the rough knobby bone tissue indicates that there was soft tissue (possibly horn) anchored firmly to it. Also, the particularly robust skull bones are typical of animals whose heads take a lot of impact, which has lead Paleontologists to speculate that Majungasuaurus, and other Abelisaurs such as Carnotaurus may have bashed their heads into things.

Witmer Lab Majungasaurus

Given that spectacular head crests are know from other theropod dinosaurs, it seems reasonable to speculate that long-horned forms may have existed, or that the horn tissue that rotted away greatly enlarged what we see in the bone. Also such features easily result from simple genetic modification by humans (such as selective breeding as in the case domestic livestock). Most importantly, IT WOULD BE AWESOME TO WATCH THEM BATTLE EACH OTHER, or other dinosaurs, or threaten humans with their territorial behavior in a well directed feature film (all of which would be completely in line with modern dinosaur science).

Or if you prefer completely made up mythological prehistoric monsters, only aesthetically inspired by actual paleontology, then there’s this:

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my talk on reconstructing Aquilops at Nerd Nite SF

About a month ago I did a talk on my dinosaur illustration process, and the video of my talk is now online. The talk centers around the reconstruction of the new species of dinosaur Aquilops americanus that I was hired to do by Andy Farke and Matt Wedel for the and Raymond Alf Museum of Paleontology.

If you want to see many of the images in my talk more clearly and read more about reconstructing Aquilops, be sure to check out my blog post Introducing Aquilops americanus.

Also, check out Nerd Nite’s website if you want to learn more about Nerd Nite events & find out when and where they’re taking place.

Oh, and here’s that ceratopsian family tree video from the end of my talk in full HD glory:

If you’d like to use the ceratopsian skull wall video in a presentation or whatever, feel free to download and use it:
DOWNLOAD UMNH CERATOPSIAN SKULL FAMILY TREE VIDEO
(right click to download)

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“Haunted Catacombs” Collab with Lone Ninja & BLAQ MASQ

I recorded this track quite a while ago, and now it’s done.

Lone Ninja is the guy rapping about “Trapdoors & Secret Passageways”, which also happens to be the name of one of his recent albums, which you should search out and buy so dude can keep rapping about fighting and other secret Ninja stuff. BLAQ MASQ made the beat. And by that I mean he hollowed out the skull of an elder monk, implanted it with the eggs of Kre’eltrothian carrion-eaters and recorded their hatching process. He then sampled those recordings into his MPC2000XL drum machine and mashed pads in order to tear a rift into deep spirit-time that Lone Ninja & I somersaulted through in order to battle various monsters and wraiths, summon ghouls, and cast mad spells, all of which you can hear in the above track. Hopefully they work (the spells) because then you will sprout roots and strange umbrella-like leaves from your skin and start crawling across the land bashing through thatched-roofed villages and growing/climbing up all the castle parapets, devouring the inhabitants and crumbling them to their foundations with your engrapplizing poisonous vines.

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Tales from the Tomb – Beat by BLAQ MASQ

I did this track & video for BLAQ MASQ’s upcoming album. I’ll post a link to where you can download the album when it comes out.


Hear more of BLAQ MASQ’s beats & production on his youtube page here: BLAQ MASQ’s youtube page

There They Lay...

If you like the art featured in this video head over to my facebook page where I’m auctioning it off. To bid, just put a comment with the amount you want to bid underneath the illustration you want. The auction ends February 28th at 9pm pacific time. Highest bidders will be contacted with a paypal payment request. Once you’ve paid, I’ll ship you your scroll (free shipping in the US).

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Introducing Aquilops americanus

YO. NEW SPECIES OF DINOSAUR. RIGHT HERE.

Aquilops americanus a new species of basal ceratopsian dinosaur.

Aquilops americanus, a new species of basal ceratopsian dinosaur.

Click HERE for a “field guide” to everything in the above image.

Also you can support original paleo art by purchasing a poster (12″x18″ – 30.48cm x 45.72cm) of the above illustration RIGHT HERE for $25. FREE shipping within the US!!:





For an overview on the new species and it’s significance head over to Andy Farke’s blog post at PLOS, and/or check out the paper. For a rundown on Matt Wedel’s involvement in the story of Aquilops’ check out his blog post at SV-POW, and stay tuned for his post about reconstructing the skull. Here on DMWD I’m gonna talk about how we went from a few squashed noggin bones to all the stuff you see in these here color pictures.
Aquilops americanus group detail

The journey that lead to the above illustration all started a while back when the world’s two most powerful paleontologists/galactic warriors, Andy Farke and Matt Wedel, hit me up about illustrating a new species of dinosaur they were working on publishing. Basically they were like, “We have the only known remains of a creature nobody’s seen in 106 million years and we want you to be the first guy show people how it might’ve looked, which will help us explain to people why it’s so goddamn awesome.” To me it was the paleontological equivalent of getting asked to combine forces with Jackie Chan and Jet Li to make a kung fu movie with crazy stunts in it, but I didn’t even have to get kicked repeatedly in the neck or thrown through a bunch of panes of glass, i just had to light fireworks and blow stuff up all around them to help make them look extra good while they kick the shit out of all the badguys who hate science and dinosaurs.

So I said yes.

First step was to check out Aquilops‘ smooshed little skull, and also a cast of the much more complete/less crushed skull of Archaeoceratops, which Andy determined was it’s closest known relative. I took a bunch of pictures of both skulls from various angles to help me wrap my brain around how these animal’s heads were shaped. I cannot even express what a huge difference seeing the fossils in person made to my ability to visualize how Aquilops’ skull might’ve looked un-crushed, and how the soft tissues would’ve attached and surrounded it in life.

Aquilops Skull DorsolateralAquilops Skull DorsalAquilops Skull VentralArchaeoceratops Skull AnteriolateralArchaeoceratops Lateral with Andy Farke in it's jawsAquilops chillin with Archaeoceratops

Based on this personal examination along with Matt Wedel’s skull reconstruction I came up with several rough life restorations of Aquilops’ head, experimenting with various soft tissue displays, thicknesses, and interpretations on the odd little blade of bone sticking out of Aquilops’ beak. While I’m at it, big shout out to Dave Hone for posting up high-res images of this exquisitely preserved Psittacosaurus from China. Those stunning soft tissue impressions, along with impressions left by other ceratopsians were extensively referenced when illustrating Aquilops’ skin and other soft tissues. When we had a settled on a look for the fleshed out head, I mocked up an array of possible color schemes.

Aquilops Color Array

One of the ideas that influenced our choice of color palette was the idea that horned dinosaur’s headgear likely evolved for both display and defense, so we thought it would make sense if Aquilops had some showy coloration, but not so showy that it would be unable to hide from predators. Accordingly I looked to modern lizards for inspiration on color schemes, as many of them have stunning color displays despite being low on the food chain and able to blend into the right hiding spots. Once a color scheme was chosen, I rendered the full head reconstruction featured in the paper:

Aquilops americanus Head Reconstruction by Brian Engh

While all this was going on, we were also trying to dig up information on the paleoeocology of Unit VII in the Cloverly formation where Aquilops was found, in order to get a better idea of what the world this animal lived in might’ve looked like. I was fortunate to make contact with Nathan Jud, a graduate student at the University of Maryland, and (so far as we know) the only person currently studying the plants found in Cloverly’s unit VII. He supplied me with several images of gorgeous plant fossils he collected, as well as input as to close modern analogues. The fossils record a seasonally dry woodland, with relatively low ambient humidity, a high water table (it was near a lake) and an undergrowth composed of several species of small leafed ferns (see my “field guide” above), as well as a primitive angiosperm similar to modern Ambrosia (Ragweed). The trees were a species of ancient redwood, with cones identical to modern Coast Redwood Sequoia sempervirens and needles identical to modern Giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum. When I found out from Nathan that the trees were a kind of redwood I got excited because I live in northern California with redwoods all around my house, and I have visited the Giant Sequoias on a number of occasions, and they are both some of the most awesome trees ever. When I met with Matt and Andy we had talked about depicting Aquilops living in a small group near some kind of cover, and I thought it would be really cool to have them using a burrow sheltered by the roots of a fallen redwood, as I have seen various extant dinosaurs (birds), mammals and reptiles use tree roots that way. So I went out and took a bunch of pictures of various root structures, with my flip flops placed on them as a dinosaur stand in/makeshift scale bar.
AquiFLOPS

Once I had a rough composition worked out I sent sketches to Nathan to work out the most reasonable placement and growing modes of the various plants in relationship to the fallen log and the light that would’ve been made available by the tree’s toppling.

Another key piece of the composition is the predatory mammal Gobiconodon ostrami, and the hatchling Aquilops. We thought it would be cool to include a mammalian predator because so often Mesozoic mammals are thought of as diminutive and primitive, yet Gobiconodon was certainly large enough to prey on small dinosaurs, and had highly advanced (and downright scary looking) teeth. It’s jaws were equipped with multi-cusped blade like molars and premolars, and fang-like conical incisors for which the genus is named. While we can’t know exactly what Gobiconodon was eating, it certainly had a mouth capable of processing flesh and small bones, as well as large claws on it’s paws, and a robust skeleton with substantial muscle attachments.

GobiconodonWeb

While the hatchling Aquilops and the adults emerging from the shadowy burrow are entirely speculative they are based on what we know about Aquilops’ close relatives. Several growth phases are known from various other ceratopsian species, and they consistently show young with reduced frills and jugal (cheek) horns, and adults with more elongated skulls, wider jugals and expanded frills. Also, we thought it would be a good idea to show a good number of baby Aquilops, as large clutches of young seem to be the norm for most dinosaurs, ceratopsians included. The strategy seems to have been “make a lot of babies and let the predators sort ’em out”, so we thought it’d make sense to show that happening, and by a relatively small mammalian predator no less. After all, in an ecosystem with Acrocanthosaurus, Deinonychus and Gobiconodon, Aquilops was pretty low on the food chain.

Perhaps Aquilops’ odd rostral protuberance helped them to dig and defend burrows, or engage in intraspecific combat. Perhaps Aquilops grew much larger than the holotype specimen, and could thus fend off larger predators. Perhaps Gobiconodon fed exclusively on insects. Ultimately there are many things that we simply don’t know and many things we can’t know, but it is my hope that rather than presenting Aquilops as just another fossil we’ve managed to present you with the fossil attached inseparably to the idea that it was a once-living creature, with instincts, and habits and needs. A character speaking to us, through the record of geology, an unfathomable 106 million years in the future.

Dinosaurs are rad.
Aquilops Pencil Render

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Earth Beasts Awaken Shirts!!!

I just finished auctioning off a bunch of hand painted shirts. It went really well and I owe everyone who bid a big thanks for all the support. I am deeply honored to be able to make things for all of you with your generous support. Here is the pitch video explaining how the auction worked, and showing a few of the T-shirt designs.

BIDDING ON HAND PAINTED SHIRTS HAS ENDED but you can still check out the shirts, and stay tuned for new ones on my facebook page here:
https://www.facebook.com/HistorianHimself

I’m also selling these stencil-painted shirts for $15 RIGHT HERE!!

STENCIL SHIRT

PICK A SIZE





Don’t like material bullshit but still want to help monsters destroy humanity and drive the few survivors insane with their blood curdling roars, shrieks, and bellowing mating calls? You can make a donation toward the cause by clicking this button here (donations over $10 bucks get a drawing from me as a thank-you):





ShellbackCloseup
Also, you can still order Earth Beasts Awaken art prints here:
EARTH BEASTS AWAKEN POSTER PRINTS!!!!!

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You could’ve been looking at something new right now…

National Geographic recently released a slew of gorgeous new paleoart and other press images with the announcement of a new paper on the awesome and enigmatic dinosaur Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. Though the imagery is awesome, the paper and the new reconstruction of Spinosaurus has proven somewhat controversial, and in discussing the new paleo art with a friend, he pointed out to me that one of the illustrations bears remarkable similarities to one of my own…

Here’s the press image released by National Geographic

…and here is my old Spinosaur image I did for Tor Bertin’s 2010 paper reviewing the Spinosauridae which can be found on PalArch here:
Kem Kem Assemblage by Brian Engh

I think the new piece is technically gorgeous, and I’m pretty smug about the fact that my first published piece of paleo-art is the first image ever made (to my knowledge) of a Spinosaur hunting while swimming in an underwater ecosystem and that it might be influencing (some say even getting ripped off by?) the good people at National Geographic (who I’ve looked up to for years!). Admittedly, the similarities get me a little riled up, but I know all too well that, as an artist, an image or sound that took someone else hours or days or years to create can so easily be dropped into a folder full of reference material where it dissolves into the sea of human experience that everything we do is drawn from. That’s just part of the process, and partially derivative works naturally result.

Like most paleoartists, when I do an illustration I amass piles of images of wildlife and fossils taken or prepared by hard working and skilled photographers and paleontologists and museum staff and I never even think to give any of those people credit if I don’t know them personally. For example, here’s an awesome image of a crocodile, gleaned from somewhere in the sprawling reaches of the internet that definitely influenced my Spinosaurus illustration to some degree…

070764-450-freshwater-crocodile

So, whether something is derivative doesn’t really matter right? Maybe not. But there is a distinction to be made with regards to how directly derived a work is. To me at least, the more directly derived an image is from a previous work of the same or similar creative medium, then the less artistic integrity that piece has. When that photographer took that picture of a crocodile their end-goal was presumably to take a picture of a crocodile. When I grabbed that Image I wasn’t thinking “ooh goody, I’ll paint this crocodile almost exactly as I see it!” Rather, I absorbed information from that image into my imagination in order to accomplish a completely different end goal: depict something nobody has ever seen before.

Reference images of living animals and fossils weren’t the only information I took in. In an attempt to figure out the ideal perspective I also made a quick little sculpture of a Spinosaurus out of polymer clay, and then photographed it in a little aquarium partially submerged in water. Here are a few of those shots.

SpinosaurSculpture2 SpinosaurSculpture1

Then, to figure out the lighting, and get a really good feel for the environment, I went to a river near my house with a GoPro camera and took a bunch of video footage of fish and turtles and light coming through the water. Here are a few frames that directly translated into the look of various parts of my image:
SpinosaurHabitatReference

It was a great day, I saw amazing things that filled me with ideas and surprised me, like this male Western Pond Turtle (Actinemys marmorata) who was so focused on trying to mate with a hunkered down female that I was able to put my camera right next to them to take this video (please forgive the blurriness, the early generations of GoPro had a major design flaw such that they couldn’t record clear images under water):

Going outside to explore a modern riparian environment with my Spinosaurus illustration in mind inspired me to incorporate snails feeding on algae, fish feeding (the one in the foreground of my illustration is eyeing a snail), as well as the turtles hanging out casually, despite large predators cruising through. If I moved slowly, like the Spinosaurus in my illustration, carp and turtles would swim all around me, even brushing past my legs and arms. One western pond turtle even tried to eat me!

The curved fish-eye lens perspective was also inspired by the ultra-wide angle lens of my little GoPro camera.

The reason I share all of this is because it was all essential to making my illustration different from any illustration of Spinosaurus that came before it. I’m not smart enough to just blast out a totally new perspective on an extinct animal without first doing a ton of research and exploration first. Yet finding that new perspective, and breathing life into new hypothesis is exactly my goal. Credit, reference, payment and financial security are all nice, but I really don’t care that much about any of that stuff (possibly to the detriment of my career). What’s important is art and science, and pushing both to the next level by gathering more evidence, exploring deeper into the imagination, and coming back with new ideas, insights and questions. The problem with the new Spinosaurus art is that it doesn’t do anything I didn’t do four years ago, other than display a slightly newer (albeit questionable) reconstruction of the animal. As people who enjoy science and art you all should be disappointed not that my image (maybe) got copied, but that the new image fails to contribute a new perspective or idea to the body of Spinosaurus paleo art. You could be looking at something totally new, from a different angle, or depicting a different hunting strategy, or at least with a substantially different composition. Instead you’re looking at a bluer, slightly better drawn version of my old ideas.

But at least lots of people get to see it.

To any paleontologists reading this: if you discover something new I hope you will consider contacting me to do a reconstruction or life restoration for you. If you are limited by budget but have a fascinating paper, article or discovery that would benefit from a compelling illustration I will still work with you. Also, bear in mind, I am four years better at art than I was when I made that Spinosaurus illustration, and I am brimming with new ideas I haven’t yet had the opportunity to illustrate. I have some new stuff in the works that I’ll be posting on when it’s published, and in the meantime here are a few of my more recent works.

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Earth Beasts Awaken Posters ON SALE NOW!!!

If you liked Earth Beasts Awaken part 1 and part 2 and you want to help part 3 be as epic as possible, you can help fund the upcoming video by buying some Earth Beasts Awaken posters!

The posters are 12″x18″ (30.48cm x 45.72cm) and are printed on nice heavy cardstock.

You can order them INDIVIDUALLY FOR $15 EACH, or if you scroll to the bottom of this post you can order ALL 5 FOR $65.

Prices include shipping within the United States. If you are outside of the US I’ll send you a paypal payment request for additional shipping once your order has shipped.

Old Mountain Back
Old Mountain Back:





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Finskull The Poisonous!
Finskull The Poisonous:





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Terrorsoar In Cave
The Terrorsoar in the Cave:





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The Snow Painter
The Snow Painter:





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King Gingko Crest
King Ginkgo Crest (to be featured in part 3!!)





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Like them all?? BUY ALL FIVE POSTERS for the discounted price of $65!





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Want to support the project but don’t have any wall-space? You can donate directly to the project here:





Thanks again to all of you for your ongoing support and feedback. If you can’t afford to support my work financially, sharing the link to this post is probably just as helpful. The more people who contribute, the less each individual needs to give. And of course, the more money I can raise, the more monsters I can bring to life. Thanks again.

-historian

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